HymATol
›About us ›Introduction ›Collaborators ›Results
Glossary/Keys
»Hymenoptera glossary ›Hymenoptera Keys ›Flash glossary
Opportunities/Links
›Opportunities ›HYM Course ›AToL links ›HymATol links
Nexus Illustrator
›Skeletal Taxa ›Nexus Introduction ›Interactive Key &rsaquo Image Mode
Recent Updates
›Standard Images ›Taxa Wishlist ›Posters About HymATol

Hymenoptera Glossary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hymenoptera Glossary and Ontology Initiative

The glossary linked here is a product of an ongoing effort by the community to build an ontology of morphological terms used by hymenopterists. The ontology is fully accessible and editable through the web, and interested parties are encouraged to get involved in its development.

Hymenoptera of the World: A glossary of terms from the keys

Unless otherwise noted the glossary below and its illustrations are from the text: Huber J.T & M.J. Sharkey. 1993. Structure, pp. 13-59. In Goulet, H. & J.T. Huber eds. Hymenoptera of the world: An identification guide to Families. Centre for Land and Biological Resources Research, Ottawa, Ontario. 668pp.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | J | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U - Z

A

  1. abdomen  (adj. abdominal)
    The principal posterior division of the body, posterior to the leg-bearing segments and composed of 10 or fewer apparent segments; in most Symphyta abdominal segment 1 is easily recognized by its median split (cf. metasoma, propodeum).
  2. abscissa  (pl., abscissae)
    A segment of a wing vein that is delimited by the intersection of other veins.
  3. acute
    Sharply angled, less than 90 degrees.
  4. antenna   (pl., antennae; adj., antennal)
    A paired, segmented sensory appendage of the head between the compound eyes, which consists of three segments having intrinsic muscles (see also scape, pedicel, and flagellum).
  5. anterior
    Toward or at the front end of the body or structure (front, frontal).
  6. apex  (pl., apices; adj., apical, apico-)
    Part of a structure farthest from its point of attachment to the body.
  7. apical
    The end farthest away from the body; at or toward the tip (see also distal).
  8. areola  (pl., areolae; adj., areolate)
    In Ichneumonidae, the median area of the propodeum that is enclosed by ridges in Braconidae this is the median areola.
  9. areolet
    In Ichneumonidae, the small cell in the centre of the fore wing; the second submarginal cell.
  10. arolium  (pl., arolia)
    A pad-like median lobe between the tarsal claws (see also pretarsus).
  11. axilla  (pl., axillae; adj., axillar)
    In groups with a transscutal articulation, posterolateral portion of the mesoscutum separated from the mesoscutum lateral to the scutellum; usually triangular (see also scutum).
  12. axillula  (pl., axillulae; adj., axillular)
    In Chalcidoidea, the lateral subdivision of the scutellum delimited by a longitudinal line.
Back to Top

B

  1. basal
    The end closest to the body (base); at or toward the base (proximal).
  2. base   (adj., basal, base-)
    The end closest to the body (base); at or toward the base (proximal).
  3. basitibial plate
    In Apoidea, a small, flat, hairless, raised region of the dorsal surface of the metatibia at its base.
  4. bulla  (pl., bullae)
    Unpigmented area of a vein where it is crossed by a wings fold or line of flexion.
Back to Top

C

  1. cardo  (pl., cardines)
    The basal part of the maxilla.
  2. carina  (pl., carinae; adj., carinate)
    A ridge or raised line.
  3. cell
    The area between the veins of a wings; it is closed when completely surrounded by veins, otherwise it is open (see morphology section for naming cells).
  4. cenchrus  (pl., cenchri)
    In Symphyta, a paired, circular, or oval structure on the sublateral portion of the metascutum that is used to hold the wings in place when not being used.
  5. cercus  (pl., cerci; adj., cercal)
    A paired, posterior, sensory appendage of the last (morphological tenth) abdominal tergum, which usually bears setae. With a reduction of the apical segments of the metasoma, the cerci often appear to be on a more anterior segment.
  6. claval lobe   (pl., chelae; adj., chelate)
    The posterior portion of a wing behind the claval fold and in front of the jugal fold, when present (see also jugal lobe).
  7. claval fold
    The furrow on the fore wing just anterior to, and parallel with, vein 1A (first anal), and extending to the claval notch on the wing margin.
  8. club
    Enlarged apical flagellomere or flagellomeres of an antenna (see also funicle).
  9. clypeus  (adj., clypeal)
    The medial sclerite of the head immediately above the labrum; often defined dorsally and laterally by the epistomal groove.
  10. compressed
    Flattened from side to side (higher than wide).
  11. concave
    Pertaining to a linear structure, margin, or surface that is curved inward (cf. convex).
  12. corbicula  (pl., corbiculae)
    In bees, the concave, smooth region of the metatibia that is marginated by a fringe of setae arising from the margins; it forms a pollen basket.
  13. costal notch
    The excision of the wing margin between the apex of the costal vein and the base of the stigma.
  14. coxa
    The first segment of a leg, between the body and the trochanter.
Back to Top

D

  1. depressed
    Flattened from top to bottom (wider than high).
  2. disc  (adj., discal)
    The central surface of any structure.
  3. dorsal
    Toward or at the top or upper surface of the body or structure (below).
Back to Top

E

  1. emarginate
    Notched; with a obtuse, rounded, or quadrate section cut out of a margin.
  2. endodont mandible
    A mandible with the teeth facing inward so that when the mandibles are closed their tips point toward each other's base (cf. exodont).
  3. epicnemial carina
    The ridge on the mesopleuron located directly posterior to the fore coxae that more or less parallels the anterior margin of the mesepisternum and that delineates the posterior margin of the epicemium.
  4. epicnemium  (adj., epicnemial)
    The anterior portion of the mesopleuron delimited posteriorly by the epicnemial carina (see also prepectus).
  5. epimeron  (pl., epimera; adj., epimeral)
    The portion of a pleuron posterior to the pleural groove (cf. episternum).
  6. epipygium
    In Chalcidoidea, a small, more or less sclerotized, fingernail-like flap attached to the last metasomal tergum between the cerci.
  7. episternal groove
    See mesepisternal groove.
  8. episternum  (pl., eisterna; adj., episternal)
    The portion of a pleuron anterior to the pleural groove (cf. epimeron).
  9. epistomal groove
    A groove defining the lateral and dorsal margin of the clypeus.
  10. epomia  (pl., epomiae)
    In Ichneumonoidea, an oblique ridge crossing the transverse furrow on the side of the pronotum.
  11. exodont mandible  (pl., epomiae)
    A mandible with the teeth facing outward so that when the mandibles are closed their tips point anteriorly or away from each other (cf. endodont).
Back to Top

F

  1. face  (adj., facial)
    In Parasitica, the anterior surface of the head between the eyes from the ventral margin of the toruli to the oral cavity, excluding the clypeus; in Symphyta and Aculeata, the anterior surface of the head between the eyes from the ocelli to the oral cavity, including the clypeus.
  2. facial fovea
    In Apoidea (bees), a depressed, often finely and densely pubescent area along the inner orbit of a compound eye.
  3. felt line
    In Multillidae and Brandynobaenidae, a longitudinal line of flattened setae and secretory pores laterally on metasomal tergum 2.
  4. femur  (pl., femora; adj., femoral)
    The third segment of a leg, between the trochanter and tibia (c.f.trochantellus).
  5. flabellum  (pl., flabella)
    In Apoidea (bees), a small thin plate at the apex of the glossa.
  6. flagellomere
    A segment-like subdivision of the flagellum; they are numbered consecutively from the base of the flagellum.
  7. flagellum  (pl., flagella; adj., flagellar)
    The third primary division or segment of the antenna; it articulates with the pedicel basally and almost always is subdivided into flagellomeres.
  8. foramen  (pl., foramina)
    A hole in the body wall through which vessels or nerves pass. The foramen magnum is the central hole in the back of the head; the propodeal foramen is the holde in the posterior area of the propodeum.
  9. frenum  (pl., frena; adj., frenal)
    In Chalcidoidea, the transverse line on the scutellum that delineates a posterior portion of the scutellum, the frenal area.
  10. frons
    The area of the head between the ventral margin of the toruli and the anterior margin of the median ocellus. (note: this is equivalent to the true frons of the larvae).
  11. frontal carina
    A longitudinal ridge or pair of ridges on the frons between (and sometimes partly covering) the toruli.
  12. funicle  (adj., funicular)
    A group of flagellomeres between the pedicel and the club.
Back to Top

G

  1. galea  (pl., galeae)
    The outer apical lobe of the maxilla, articulated basally with the stipes.
  2. gastrocoelus-thyridium  (pl., gastrocoeli)
    In Ichneumonidae, the usually transverse impression anterolaterally on metasomal tergum 2. The gastrocoelus includes the thyridium (t) which is the surface area with specialized sculpture, whereas the gastrocoelus is the impression itself.
  3. gena  (pl., genae; adj., genal)
    The cheek; the lateral part of the head between the compound eye and, when present, the occipital carina; otherwise, the lower (in hypognathous head) or anterior (in prognathous head) part of the back of the head between the compound eye and the occiput.
  4. glossa  (pl., glossae)
    The paired, fused, median lobe of the labium articulated basally with the prementum.
  5. glymma  (pl., glymmae)
    In Ichneumonidae, the groove or pit on either side of metasomal segment 1 between its base and the spiracle; it is nearly always present when sternum 1 is free from tergum 1 but absent when tergum 1 and sternum 1 are fused.
  6. groove
    A linear impression on a sclerite (see also suture).
Back to Top

H

  1. hamulus  (pl., hamuli)
    One of a series of small bristle-like hooks on the anterior margin of the hind wing; in some groups there may be a basal and an apical series of hamuli.
  2. head
    The principal anterior division of the body; it bears the mouthparts and antennae.
  3. humeral plate
    The anterior sclerite of the wing at the base of vein C (costa).
  4. hypognathous
    With the head more or less at a right angle to the plane of the body (vertical), so the mouthparts are directed ventrally (cf. prognathous).
  5. hypopygium  (adj., hypopygial)
    The last visible sternum of the abdomen.
  6. hypostomal bridge
    The sclerotized posterior part of the head that sometimes separates the foramen magnum from the oral cavity that normally delimits the hypostoma from the postgena and occiput.
Back to Top

J

  1. jugal lobe
    The posterior area of the wing behind vein 1A (first anal) and set off from more anterior areas by a slight fold (jugal fold) on the wing and by a notch on the wing margin (see also claval lobe).
Back to Top

L

  1. labium  (adj., labial)
    The posterior, medial appendage of the mouthparts between and behind the maxillae, composed of the submentum, mentum, prementum, glossa, paraglossa, and labial palpi.
  2. labrum  (adj., labral)
    The anterior, medial appendage of the mouthparts attached to the underside of, and often concealed by, the clypeus.
  3. lacinia  (pl., laciniae)
    The inner apical lobe of the maxilla, articulated to the stipes.
  4. lamina  (pl., laminae; adj., laminate)
    A thin plate or leaf-like process.
  5. lateral
    Toward or at the side of the body, or the side margin or edge of a structure.
  6. laterotergite
    The lateral part of an abdominal/metasomal tergum that is marked by a crease or groove, or is even completely detached from the main dorsal part of the tergum (see also tergite, tergum).
Back to Top

M

  1. malar space
    The shortest distance between the base of the mandible and the margin of the compound eye.
  2. mandible  (adj., mandibular)
    The paired, heavily sclerotized biting and chewing lateral appendage of the mouthparts between the labrum and maxilla.
  3. maxilla  (pl., maxillae; adj., maxillary)
    The paired appendage of the mouthparts between the mandible and the labium, consisting of the cardo, stipes, lacinia, galea, and maxillary palpus.
  4. medial
    Toward or at the center, or central area or line, of the body or structure (middle, mid).
  5. median
    See medial.
  6. mentum
    A labial sclerite articulating basally with the submentum and apically with the prementum; often fused with the latter and indistinguishable as separate sclerite.
  7. mes-,
    See meso.
  8. mesepimeron
    The posterior subdivision of the mesopleuron, usually small (sometimes almost absent) relative to the mesepisternum.
  9. mesepisternal groove
    A groove on the mesopleuron, extending ventrally from a pit under the base of the forewings and, when complete, reaching the anteroventral margin of the metathorax.
  10. mesepisternum
    The anterior subdivision of the mesopleuron, usually comprising most of the mesopleuron.
  11. meso-
    A Greek prefix meaning middle or mid; used with Latin, latinized, or Greek words to indicate the middle (often second) part of a structure.
  12. mesonotum
    The dorsal part of the mesothorax.
  13. mesopleuron
    The lateral and ventral part of the mesothorax (see also mesosternum).
  14. mesoscutal lobe
    See mesoscutum.
  15. mesoscutellar appendage
    In Symphyta, the posterior subdivision of the mesoscutellum, usually crescent-shaped and overhanging the postnotum of the mesothorax.
  16. mesoscutellum
    See scutellum.
  17. mesoscutum
    The mesonotum excluding the scutellum; in groups with a transscutal articulation, the portion of the mesonotum anterior to the articulation; the mesoscutum is usually divided by the notauli into a medial part and two lateral lobes (see also scutum).
  18. mesosoma  (pl., mesosomata; adj., mesosomal)
    adj., mesosomal) In Apocrita, the thorax plus the propodeum (cf. thorax).
  19. mesosternum
    The sternum of the mesothorax, usually invaginated and not visible; sometimes inappropriately used as a general term for the ventral surface of the mesothorax, such as when it is modified into a flat plate with posteriorly projecting lobes (see .also mesopleuron).
  20. mesothorax
    The second and largest of the three primary subdivisions of the thorax, bearing the middle pair of legs and, when present, the forewings.
  21. mesotrochantrinal plate
    The ventral part of the mesothorax inflected towards the metasternum beneath the base of the mesocoxae; visible only by removing the mesocoxae.
  22. met-
    See meta-
  23. meta-
    A Greek prefix meaning hind or posterior; used with Latin, latinized, or Green words to indicate the posterior (usually third) part of a structure).
  24. metanotum
    The dorsal part of the metathorax.
  25. metapleuron
    The lateral and ventral part of the metathorax.
  26. metasoma  (pl., metasomata; adj., metasomal)
    In Apocrita, the apparent abdomen, consisting of the abdomen, excluding the first segment or propodeum which is fused withe the thorax to the mesosoma (cf. abdomen).
  27. metasternum
    The sternum of the metathorax, usually invaginated and not visible but sometimes used as a general term for the ventral surface of the metathorax.
  28. metathorax
    The third of the three primary subdivisions of the thorax, bearing the hind pair of legs and, when present, the hind wings.
  29. metepimeron
    The posterior subdivision of the metapleuron.
  30. metepisternum
    The anterior subdivision of the metapleuron.
  31. mouthparts
    The appendages of the head used for feeding, including the labrum, hypopharynx, mandibles, maxillae, and labium.
Back to Top

N

  1. nebulous vein
    A wing vein that is uniformly pigmented (not darker on its margins), without a tubular structure; it can be seen with both reflected and transmitted light (cf. spectral tubular veins).
  2. notaulus  (pl., notauli)
    The usually oblique longitudinal groove on the mesoscutum, often dividing the mesoscutum into medial and lateral parts.
  3. notopleural suture
    A groove separating the mesonotum from mesopleuron.
  4. notum  (pl., nota; adj., notal)
    A thoracic tergum, usually subdivided into a scutum and a scutellum.
  5. notum  (pl., nota; adj., notal)
    A thoracic tergum, usually subdivided into a scutum and a scutellum.
Back to Top

O

  1. oblique scutal carina
    In sphecidae s.l., the ridge on the mesoscutum extending obliquely posteriorly and medially from the lateral margin near the posterior of the tegula.
  2. occipital carina
    A ridge on the posterior surface of the head that separates the occiput from the vertex and gena; the ventral part of the ridge is sometimes called the genal carina.
  3. occiput  (adj., occipital)
    The posterior part of the head behind the vertex dorsally and the genae laterally. If the an occipital carina is present, the occiput is the area between it and the very narrow postocciput surrounding the foramen magnum (see also postgena).
  4. ocellus  (pl., oceli; adj., ocellar)
    A simple eye, consisting of a single, usually round or oval facet. Hymenoptera usually have three ocelli: one median (anterior) and two lateral (posterior).
  5. oral cavity
    The opening of the head from which the mouthparts are suspended.
  6. orbit
    The narrow border around the eye. The inner and outer orbits are those parts of the face plus the frons and the gena, respectively, immediately next to the eye.
  7. ovipositor
    In females, a slender, paired and interlocking, saw-like or tubular structure used for laying the eggs or, in Aculeata, for stinging or, in some Ichneumonoidea, for both; it may be concealed or may extend beyond the apex of the body and is protected by a pair .of ovipositor sheaths.
  8. ovipositor sheath
    A paired, sclerotized structure enclosing the external part of the ovipositor.
Back to Top

P

  1. palpus  (pl., palpi; adj., palpal)
    Pared sensory appendages of the maxilla and labium, consisting of one to six segments and one to four segments, respectively.
  2. paraglossa  (pl., paraglossae)
    A paired, lateral lobe of the labium articulated basally with the prementum lateral to the base of the glossa.
  3. pedicel
    The second primary division or segment of the antenna; it articulates apically with the flagellum and basally with the scape.
  4. pedunculate
    An intermediate, club-like condition between sessile and petiolate (see also petiolate).
  5. petiolate
    Stalked.
  6. petiole
    Part of the metasome, usually metasomal segment 1; the usually narrow, parallel-sided stalk joining the rest of the metasoma to the propodeum.
  7. placoid sensillum  (pl., sensilla)
    An elongate, appressed, plate-like or rounded roof-like or groove-like sensory structure; it is usually mentioned when referring to the flagellomeres.
  8. plantar lobe
    A small membranous pad projecting from the ventral apex of tarsomeres 1-4.
  9. pleural groove
    A groove on the mesopleuron and metapleuron extending between the wing base and the coxal articulation; it separates the episternum from the epimeron.
  10. pleuron  (pl., pleura; adj., pleural)
    The lateral part of a body segment, commonly of a thoracic segment where the pleuron occupies the lateral as well as the ventral areas of the mesothorax and metathorax.
  11. posterior
    Toward or at the hind end of the body or structure (rear, back).
  12. posterior lingual plate
    A sclerite on the posterior (ventral) surface of the glossa.
  13. postgena  (adj., postgenal)
    The lower part of the occiput; when the occipital carina is absent, the gena and postgena are continuous, and the entire lower area constitutes the gena (see also occiput).
  14. postnotum
    A posterior sclerite of the mesonotum and metanotum behind the scutellum. The postnotum of the metathorax is fused dorsally with abdominal tergum 1 and laterally with the metepimeron; in apocrita the postnotum is rarely visible, and then only as an .impressed line in front of the propodeum.
  15. postocciput  (adj., postoccipital)
    A narrow area surrounding the foramen magnum; it is separated from the occiput by the postoccipital groove.
  16. postpectal carina
    In Ichneumonoidea, the posterior transverse carina ventrally on the mesopleuron, just in front of the mesocoxa.
  17. prementum
    A labial sclerite articulating basally with the mentum and bearing the glossae, paraglossae, and palpi apically.
  18. prepectus
    A sclerite of the thorax between the pronotum and the mesepisternum (see also epinemium).
  19. prestigma
    The enlarged and sclerotized apex of one or more veins on the anterior margin of the wing basal to the costal notch and almost continuous with the stigma.
  20. pretarsus
    The apical segment of a leg, bearing the claws and associated structures (see also arolium).
  21. pro-
    A Latin prefix meaning before or anterior; used with Latin, latinized, or Greek words to indicate the anterior (usually first) part of a structure.
  22. prognathous
    With the head more or less in the same plane as the body (horizontal) so the mouthparts are directed anteriorly (cf. hypognathous).
  23. pronotal collar
    The horizontal surface of the pronotum posterior to the sloping, and often narrowing, region immediately behind the head.
  24. pronotal flange
    The anterior projecting rim of the pronotum; it is often hidden by the head.
  25. pronotal lobe
    The rounded posterolateral extension of the pronotum covering the mesothoracic spiracle.
  26. pronotal plate
    In Cynipoidea, the dorsal disc of the pronotum.
  27. pronotum  (adj., pronotal)
    The dorsal sclerite of the prothorax; in most Hymenoptera, occupying also the dorsolateral or lateral part of the prothorax.
  28. propleuron  (pl., propleura)
    The lateral part of the prothorax. In hymenoptera, it is displaced somewhat by the pronotum so as to occupy an oblique position ventrolateral and anterior to the pronotum.
  29. propodeal carina
    In Ichneumonoidea, one or more named, usually distinct, transverse or longitudinal ridges on the propodeum.
  30. propodeum  (adj., propodeal)
    In Apocrita, the first tergum of the abdomen, widely and immovably fused with the metanotum and with each metapleuron of the thorax, and usually narrowly and flexibly joined to the rest of the abdomen (see also abdomen, metasoma, .thorax)
  31. prosternum
    A ventral sclerite of the prothorax, between the propleura.
  32. prothorax
    The first of the three primary subdivisions of the thorax, composed of the pronotum, the propleuron, and the prosternum.
  33. pubescence
    The short, fine, often closely set setae on the body.
  34. punctate
    Bearing fine, impressed points or pits.
  35. pygidial plate
    A specialized area of the tergum of the last externally visible segment of the metasoma; it is usually flattened and defined laterally by ridges or grooves.
Back to Top

R

  1. radicle
    The basal part of the scape often strongly defined by a constriction; it articulates with the torulus.
  2. recumbent
    Referring to a seta lying parallel to the body surface.
  3. reticulate
    Covered with a network of lines; meshed.
Back to Top

S

  1. scape
    The first primary division or segment of the antenna; it articulates apically with the pedicel and basally with the torulus.
  2. sclerite
    A hardened plate of the integument; it is separated from other such plates by sutures or membrane.
  3. sclerotized
    Referring to the body integument; relatively stiff and usually darkly pigmented areas compared with usually colorless and flexible membranous areas.
  4. scopa  (pl., scopae)
    In Apiformes, a brush-like structure of short stiff hairs of equal length used for collecting pollen.
  5. scrobal groove
    A horizontal groove on the mesopleuron that may be continuous with the episternal groove anteriorly and ends at the pleural grove posteriorly.
  6. scrobe  (adj., scrobal)
    A groove in the body integument for the reception or concealment of an appendage, e.g., A longitudinal depression of the head above each torulus for reception of the scape or a groove on the mesopleuron for reception of the mesofemur; the .scrobe of the mesepisternum is a small pit.
  7. sculpture
    Markings or a pattern of impressions or elevations on the surface of a structure.
  8. scutellum  (pl., scutella; adj., scutellae)
    The middle region of the mesonotum or metanotum, behind the scutum. In apocrita, only the mesoscutellum is evident and is simply called the scutellum, whereas in symphyta both the mesoscutellum and metascutellum are present.
  9. scutum  (pl., scuta; adj., scutal)
    The anterior sclerite of a notum, in front of the scutellum. In apocrita, the mesoscutum is functionally only the area in front of the transscutal articulation; the axilla, although morphologically part of the mesoscutum, is treated as separate (see also axilla).
  10. segment
    A ring or subdivision of the body or of an appendage between areas of flexibility, and bearing intrinsic muscles.
  11. sensillum (pl., sensilla)
    A simple sense organ, such as a seta, or one of the structural units of a compound sense organ.
  12. sessile
    One structure attached to another, without a distinct constriction (cf. pedunculate, petiolate).
  13. seta  (pl., setae; adj., setal)
    A slender, hair-like, usually sensory extension of the cuticle, connected to the body wall by a socket.
  14. spectral vein
    A wing vein that is indicated only by a ridge or furrow on the wing surface; it has no trace of pigment and can only be seen with reflected light (cf. tubular, nebulous veins).
  15. spiracle  (adj., spiracular)
    A small, round or oval lateral opening on a body segment through which air enters the tracheae.
  16. sternaulus  (pl., sternauli)
    The horizontal lateroventral carina or groove near the lower margin of the mesopleuron, extending from the lower end of the epicnemial carina toward the mesocoxa.
  17. sternite
    The sclerotized subdivision of a sternum bounded by grooves or by membranous lines or areas (see also sternum).
  18. sternum  (pl., sterna; adj., sternal)
    The ventral division of a body segment, which may be subdivided into sternites; usually only refers to the segments of the abdomen/metasoma and to the prothorax. The sterna of the mesothorax and metathorax are considered to be invaginated within the thorax.
  19. stigma
    A thickly sclerotized and usually darkly pigmented area on the fore wing margin at the apex of the costal vein. In Chalcidoidea, a knob-like enlargement of the apex of the stigmal vein.
  20. stipes  (pl., stipites; adj., stipital)
    A major sclerite of the maxilla, articulating basally with the cardo, apically with the galea and lacinia, and laterally with the maxillary palpus.
  21. sub-
    Latin prefix meaning under; also used commonly to mean somewhat or almost (e.g., subequal is synonymous with almost equal).
  22. subantennal groove
    In Apiformes, one or two fine grooves between the torulus and the clypeus.
  23. subgenal carina
    A ridge bordering the gena ventrally; it extends from the hypostomal carina to the anterior or facial articulation of the mandible.
  24. submentum
    The basal sclerite of the labium articulating apically with the mentum; in Apoidea, an often V-shaped sclerite (often called the lorum) with an arm articulating with each cardo and medially articulating with the mentum.
  25. submetapleural carina
    A ridge on the ventral margin of the lower part of the metapleuron, between the bases of the mesocoxae and metacoxae.
  26. subocular groove
    A groove extending from the ventral margin of the eye to the anterior or facial articulation of the mandible.
  27. suture
    A line or membranous area on the cuticle indicating the junction of two formerly separate plates or sclerites (see also groove).
Back to Top

T

  1. tarsomere
    A subdivision of the tarsus; each tarsus has 3 - 5 tarsomeres.
  2. tarsus  (pl., tarsi; adj., tarsal)
    The fifth segment of a leg, attached basally to the tibia and subdivided into tarsomeres.
  3. tegula  (pl., tegulae)
    A small, scale-like sclerite covering the base of the fore wing, basal to the humeral plate.
  4. tergite
    A sclerotized subdivision of a tergum bounded by grooves, or membranous lines or areas (see also laterotergite, tergum).
  5. tergum  (pl., terga; adj., tergal)
    A dorsal sclerite of a body segment, which may be subdivided into tergites; specifically used for the abdomen/metasoma (see also laterotergite).
  6. thorax  (pl., thoraces; adj., thoracic)
    The principal middle division of the body to which the legs are attached, between the head and abdomen (cf. mesosoma).
  7. thyridium
    See gastrocoelus.
  8. tibia  (pl., tibiae; adj., tibial)
    The fourth segment of a leg, between the femur and the tarsus.
  9. tibial spur
    A spine-like, multicellular extension of the cuticle connected to an appendage by a socket; usually found on the tibiae.
  10. torulus  (pl., toruli)
    A paired socket or. the front of the head upon which the scape is articulated.
  11. transscutal articulation
    A line of weakness across the mesonotum between the fore wing bases, which secondarily separates the posterolateral angles of the mesoscutum beside the scutellum (see also axilla, scutum).
  12. trochantellus
    The basal end of the femur; it looks like a second segment of the trochanter.
  13. trochanter
    The second segment of a leg, between the coxa and femur.
  14. truncate
    Cut off squarely at the tip. tubular vein A pigmented wing vein that is hollow and therefore appears darker laterally and lighter medially; it can be seen with both reflected and transmitted light (cf. nebulous,spectral veins).
Back to Top

U-Z

  1. uncus
  2. vein  (adj., veinal)
    Narrow, usually dark thickenings of a wing arising at the wing base and branching towards the apex (see also nebulous, spectral, tubular veins, and morphology section for naming of veins).
  3. vertex
    The top of the head between the eyes, from the anterior margin of the median ocellus to the occiput.
  4. volsella  (pl., volsellae)
    A paired, median inner appendage of the male genitalia.
Back to Top